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Sri Lanka
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Sri Lanka and South India
Sinharaja Rain Forest

Wanaraja ground orchid
Anoectocbilus setaceus
Pitcher Plant
Veni Wel Geta
Coscinium  fenestratum
path to Moulawella trail
Insect Traper -
The pitcher plant is a creeper  on shrubs and treelets. The leaf tip modified to form an elongated sac ( a pitcher ) filled with a liquid which traps insects to be digested by the plant.

The thickend stem of the plant is used for tying in the construction of wattle and daub houses and ladders by the villagers usauly grow along forest margins and disturbed sites.
Wesak Orchid  ( Dendrobium marcarthiae )

A rare Orchid localy known as Wesak Orchid. ( Dendrobium marcarthiae ) found in Sinharaja it is an ephyphite with purple flowers the flowreing season is mostly in month of May coinciding in Wesak season month celebrated by buddhist.
Kitul Tree ( Caryota urens )
This is a common sight witnessed in Sinharaja where villages carry pots full of sap trapped from the inflorescence of locally known Kitul Tree ( Caryota urens ) family palmae fermentation of the sap produces an alchohlic beverages.

The unfermented sap when concentrated by heating forms a thick syrup which is relished as treacle ( peni ) by Sri Lankan. Treacle in turn produces juggery ( Hakuru ) crystalized brown suger.

These two products fetch very attractive prices thus making a livelihood of the local people.  Sinharaja juggery is well known all over Sri Lanka.     
Area of Sinharaja Rain Forest
The total area of the Sinharaja Forest Reserve is 18,900 acres or 7,648 hectares. It ranges in altitude from 300m to 1,170m.
Significance of Sinharaja Forest

Sinharaja Forest reserve is also home to over 50% of Sri Lanka's endemic species of mammals and butterflies, as well as many kinds of insects, reptiles and rare amphibians.
Mountain Peaks of Sinharaja Rain Forest

Nature trails of Sinharaja Rain Forest

The two main nature trails of Sinharaja Rain Forest are those lead to the peak of Moulawella and the peak of Sinhagala. Both of these nature trails begins at Kudawa Conservation Centre  are equally enjoyable and enlightening.

The forest is densly crowded with tall trees growing in close proximity, but winding trails make the trekking. Small streams of crystal-clear cool water, that is home to a variety of fish, toads and crabs, crisscross the trails. And the mixed species of birds are seen in the canopy of woods.

Moulawella Nature Trail
Trail head- Entrance to the protected area, Kudawa Conservation Centre, Weddagala, Kalawana
Trail end- Mulawella Peak
Length of the trai-: 2.4 km
Rise in elevation along the trail- 457m at Trail Head to 758m at Trail End
Approximate time- 1-2 hours
Hiking Season- Best months are December to April

Sinhagala Nature Trail
Trail head- Entrance to the protected area, Kudawa Conservation Centre, Weddagala, Kalawana
Trail end- Sinhagala Peak
Length of the trail- 2.4 km
Rise in elevation gain along the trail- 300m at Trail Head- 473m at Trail End
Approximate time- 5-7 hours
Hiking Season- Best months are December to April

There are several mountain peaks in the eastern side of the Sinharaja Forest Reserve.
Hinipitigala Peak - 1,171 m
Dotugala Peak - 769 m
Moulawella Peak - 760 m
Kosgulana 797 m
Hinipitigala West 1170 m
Hinipitigala East 1168 m
Pathinigala 605 m
Sinhagala 742 m
Tibbotagala 904 m
Kohilarambe 757 m
Waturawa - not operate now

Company & Business Registration No-  W / A 102243
Reptiles in Sinharaja Forest-
The reptilian fauna of Sinharaja forest is represented by 45 species of which 21 are endemic. 

This includes a large propotion of snakes, several lizards, tortoises and skinks.  Among the venomous species that occur in the forest are the Green-Pit Viper which is arboreal,  the hump- nosed Viper and the Krait which frequents the forest floor. The Cobra is seen occasion. The Russel's Viper has been observed in Secondry vegetation. 

Green-Pit Viper which is arboreal
Picture Credits - Olga Shorokhova
Jiant Nawada Tree -
Botanical Name - Shorea stipularis
Common name - Nawada , Dun
Family - Dipterocarpaceae
Genera - shorea
Origin - Endemic to Sri Lanka
Height - 43 m
Girth - 6.3 m
Volume - 110 m3
Uses - best for flywood, Resins

compiled by - Kapila Hettiarachchie
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Excursions to see and study humble hard and very simple life style people who lives at Sinharaja Forest
Picture Credits - Olga Shorokhova
  Flora of  Sinharaja Forest
Katu Kitul
A number of Birds in Sinharaja Forest
Observations made on at least 100 such flocks at Sinharaja rain forest. Reveal that over 40 species partcipate in flocks.

Sinharaja Rain Forest is home to numerous indigenous birds such asthe Ceylon Hanging Parrot (Loriculus beryllinus) Ceylon Grey Hornbill (Ocyceros gingalensis)  Ashy-headed Laughing Thrush (Garrulax cinereifrons) Layard's parakeet (Psittacula calthripae)  Jungle fowl (Gallus lafayetii )  Spur fowl (Galloperdix bicalcarata) Ceylon Wood Pigeon (Columba torringtonii)   Brown- capped Babbler (Pellorneum fuscocapillum)  Red-faced Malkoha (Phaenicophaeus pyrrhocephalus) and the Ceylon Blue Magpie (Urocissa ornate) among others are prominent in this area.

19 of Sri Lanka's 20 species of endemic bird species in Sri Lanka are found in the Sinharaja Reserve  Among the endangered birds are Sri Lanka Wood Pigeon, Green-Billed Coucal, Sri Lankan white-headed starling, Red-faced Malkoha, Green-billed Caucal, Sri Lanka Spur fowl Sri Lankan Blue Magpie, and Ashy-headed Babbler, all of which are endemic.

Picture Credits - Olga Shorokhova
Giant Rattan Palms
Calamus ovoideus
Mammals, reptiles, amphibians and butterflies

Out of 12 endemic mammal species of the country 8 are found here. Giant squirrel, dusky-stripped jungle squirrel, badger mongoose and endemic purple-faced leaf monkey and torque macaque are frequently seen.

Many threatened species of mammals, reptiles, amphibians and butterflies are found in the Reserve including the leopard. Endemism among mammals and butterflies is greater than 50%. Reptiles and amphibia include python, endemic green pit viper, endemic hump nosed lizard (Lyriocephalus scutatus) and and rough-nose horned lizard (Ceratophora aspera).

Wesak Orchid 
( Dendrobium marcarthiae )
Kudawa Village
The houses are small floor area and constructed of wattle and daub.The villages of the area are not very large. The family structure is that of an extended family with parents, Children and grandparents living together. The villages are healthy and physically fit.
Nepenthus distillatoria
Small streams of crystal-clear
cool water
view of the forest path
Bo Witiya
Arundina graminifolia
Sinhala Name
Botanical Name
Campnosperma zeylanica

Bambara Wel
Dalbergia championii
Shorea megistophylla
Symplocos sp.
Diya Na
Mesua ferrea
Mangifera zeylanica
Gal Karanda
Hamboldtia laurifolia
Ginihota Fern
Cyathia walkeri
Horsfieldia irya
Chaetocarpus castanocarpus
Dipterocarpus zeylanicus
Kabara Badulla
Semecarpus gardneri
Calophyllum trapezifolium
Dicranopteris linearis
Schumacheria castaneifolia
Macaranga peltata
Syzygium rubicundum
Ma Wewal
Calamus zelanicus
Mesua nagassarium
Entada scandens

Costus speciosa
Calamus ovoideus
Calamus zelanicus
Thiniya Dun
Shorea trapezifolia

Wana Iddala
Wendlandia bicuspidata
Wal Del
Artocarpus nobilis
Wild Cardomum
Elattaria cardomum var. major.
Sight Seeing Lanka
WildLife & Nature
of Sri Lanka
compiled by - Kapila Hettiarachchie
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A  eye catching beautiful broad view of a surrounding regions from Moulawella Trail Head